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One claim often repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, usually referring to the supposed Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour",.Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans adapted accordingly.It is also the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State.Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, and the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London, Paris and Rome by centuries.Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, with average temperatures 15 °C (59 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46 °F) at night from December to February.The typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although also in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C (77.0 °F).Around 80 BC, the Roman Quintus Sertorius led a rebellion against the dictator Sulla.During this period, he organised the tribes of Lusitania and Hispania and was on the verge of forming an independent province in the Sertorian War when he was assassinated.

Another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio.Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the empire, as the Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia.Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31 miles); exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was then integrated with the Roman province of Lusitania (whose capital was Emerita Augusta).Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum (a fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the empire and exported in amphorae to Rome), wine, salt and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated the hinterland.The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (Portuguese Braga), and Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania.

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